The Winter Sky
by Gerald Rezes
Winter arrived at 8:28am (PST) on December 21 – the longest night of the year. Winter is a great time for star gazing as long as the weather holds out and in Southern California this is usually the case.
There are too many propionate stars, constellations and astronomical objects in the winter sky to detail here. But the winter’s featured constellation has to be Orion. The stars that make up Orion’s figure are identified in many cultures as a hunter. Astronomically speaking, Orion is looks like a large hourglass pattern with three star making up his waistline belt. His right shoulder is marked by Betelgeuse, a large red giant star. In the opposite corner, Orion’s left knee, shines Rigel a hot blue supergiant. There are three stars that make-up Orion’s sword but actually, the middle “star” is the Great Orion Nebula (M42). This brilliant nebula is a hot bed of new star creation and is one of the easiest objects for the amateur astronomer to find and view in any telescope or binoculars.
- Dec. 26 – First Quarter
- Jan. 1 – Full Moon
- Jan. 8 – Last Quarter
- Jan. 16 – New Moon
- Jan. 24 – First Quarter
- Jan. 31 – Full Moon
- Feb. 7 – Last Quarter
- Feb. 15 – New Moon
- Feb. 23 – First Quarter
- Mar. 1 – Full Moon
- Mar. 9 – Last Quarter
- Mar. 17 – New Moon
- Griffith Observatory
The before mentioned Betelgeuse along with Sirius and Procyon make up the asterism called the Winter Triangle. Sirius, the Dog Star, is the brightest star in the night sky; Procyon is a binary system with a white dwarf star. Rounding out the notable stars in the winter sky are Aldebara, Capella, Castor and Pollux.
Opposite the galactic center, the winter presents the Milky Way’s outer arm spanning across the sky. With this river of stars, their are many Messier objects. The before mentioned Orion Nebula, M42, is probably the most famous winter object. Next perhaps is M1, The Crab Nebula, which is a circular supernova remnant from an explosion in 1054 AD. M45, The Pleiades, is sometimes mistaken for the Little Dipper but this open cluster of new stars is nowhere near the northern pole. There are several additional open clusters in the winter sky including: M41, M35, M36, M37, M38 and M67. Last, there are the Hyades, the nearest open cluster which makes up the “V” in Taurus.
Moon: Is the Super, Bloody, Blue Moon on January 31 being near perigee, in lunar eclipse and the second full moon of January. Then it skips being full for all of February to return twice in March being a Blue Moon again on March 31.
Mercury is in superior conjunction with the Sun and returns to the evening sky in March.
Venus returns to the evening sky in late February / early March.
Mars rises about 4 1/2 hours before the sun and is near its rival Antares in Scorpius.
Jupiter is in Libra and spends all post-midnight in the sky.
Saturn rises before down and is the constellation Sagittarius.
Uranus is in Pisces and begins the winter in the evening but transitions to the morning by winter’s end.
Neptune is in the constellation Aquarius and is already difficult to spot in the western twilight when winter begins. Neptune makes the transition to morning by the end of winter.